Dermatologists diagnose a wide range of skin disease, ranging from skin cancers to inflammatory conditions like atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. However, globally, an estimated 3 billion people have inadequate access to medical care for skin disease. Even in the United States, there is a shortage and unequal access to dermatologists leading to long wait times. One proposed solution is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) tools, which could help with triaging skin diseases and identifying individuals with potential skin diseases. There has been rapid development of algorithms which claim to detect cutaneous malignancies over the last few years. However, we recently published a review of AI datasets for dermatology and found that most datasets are not publicly available, lack important information about dataset diversity, and have noisy diagnostic labels. Currently, publicly available datasets lack biopsy-proven skin lesions in dark skin tones.
In order to train and test AI algorithms in dermatology, we need diverse, validated benchmarks. We curated the Diverse Dermatology Images (DDI) dataset to meet this need—the first publicly available, expertly curated, and pathologically confirmed image dataset with diverse skin tones.
Clinical application: Given the long wait time to see a dermatologist, AI algorithms could help triage benign versus malignant lesions. However, it is important to have expertly labeled data that represents diverse skin tones in order to make sure that algorithms perform fairly across all groups.
Labeling: The images included in the DDI dataset were retrospectively selected from reviewing pathology reports in Stanford Clinics from 2010-2020 with further details in our paper. There are 656 images representing 570 unique patients. Each image label was expertly curated: skin tone was labeled based on in-person evaluation at the clinic visit cross-referenced against demographic photos and review of the clinical images by two board certified dermatologists. Each diagnosis was based on pathology reports from biopsy: these reports and the corresponding image was reviewed by a board certified dermatologist and dermatopathologist.
Skin tone comparison: The dataset comprised a retrospective convenience sample across all images of Fitzpatrick I-VI but was also designed to allow direct comparison between Fitzpatrick I-II and Fitzpatrick V-VI by matching diagnostic category, age within 10 years, gender, and date of photograph within 3 years. The images are not meant to be text book examples but rather represent the kind of clinical photos that AI algorithms may encounter in practice. This design allows us to evaluate previously developed state-of-the-art diagnostic algorithms across skin tones. During the de-identification process prior to data release, some of the images were cropped further to protect patient privacy. However, the main lesions were preserved during this process.
Model code is available here. It includes a PyTorch custom dataset for DDI as well as our evaluation code.
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